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COVID-19 Ag Respi-Strip represents a promising rapid SARS-CoV-2 antigen assay for first-line diagnosis of COVID-19 in 15 minutes at pandemic's peak. The second‐generation antiretroviral drug combination lopinavir/ritonavir inhibits viral protease. Data on the efficacy of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine remain inconclusive, and further studies are warranted. It is hoped that a vaccine will become available, but successful development and regulatory approval of a vaccine will take many months. In mild cases, self‐isolation at home is the best option, whilst maintaining adequate hydration and nutrition and treating symptoms such as fever, sore throat or cough. Furthermore, most of the available evidence supports the thesis that social distancing of 1.5 m is enough to prevent airborne transmission. Internal treatment in traditional Chinese medicine for patients with COVID-19: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis. Simone Scarlata: Conceptualization; Data curation (equal); Investigation (equal); Methodology; Resources (equal); Supervision; Validation (equal). Their interaction determines the chemotaxis and activation of natural killer (NK) cells, the recruitment of Group 1 innate lymphoid cells (ILC1) and the differentiation of T helper (Th) lymphocytes into Type 1 helper (Th1) cells. It is reasonable to suggest that isolation is no longer necessary after two consecutive negative real‐time (RT)‐PCR tests at an interval of at least 24 h and in the absence of relevant clinical or epidemiological criteria. 2020 Nov 9:S0002-9629(20)30491-2. doi: 10.1016/j.amjms.2020.11.005. Human‐to‐human aerosol transmission is undoubtedly the main source of contagion, which happens mainly through contaminated droplets, hands or surfaces. Early bilateral multifocal areas of interstitial syndrome.…, Virus‐induced inflammation pathway. It appears that transmission is possible for approximately 8 days after symptoms appear. [28, 29] It is therefore difficult to differentiate COVID‐19 from other respiratory diseases [30-32]. 2020 Oct-Dec;10(4):226-233. doi: 10.4103/ijabmr.IJABMR_381_20. The authors declare no affiliations with or involvement in any organization or entity with any financial or nonfinancial interest related to this manuscript. Microbial contamination of the surface of mobile phones and implications for the containment of the Covid-19 pandemic. Immune cells are sequentially activated to limit virus dissemination. Ground‐glass opacities. Li M, Yoo EJ, Baram M, McArthur M, Skeehan C, Awsare B, George G, Summer R, Zurlo J, Jallo J, Roman J. Furthermore, the use of bradykinin receptor B1 and B2 antagonists may be a novel strategy to treat the bradykinin‐dependent local lung angioedema caused by COVID‐19. The risk of transmission from children with COVID-19 is discussed in detail elsewhere. Other potentially interesting but purely speculative options at present include molecules acting on the Th1‐mediated inflammatory cascade, such as canakinumab (a human monoclonal antibody targeting IL‐1β) or roflumilast (a selective, long‐acting inhibitor of the enzyme phosphodiesterase‐4 which is already used to control neutrophilic inflammation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) [112, 113]. If a sufficiently high arterial O2 level (SatO2 93–96%) is not reached, and if acute lung injury develops (ratio of arterial partial pressure of oxygen to fractional inspired oxygen ≤ 200 mmHg), invasive mechanical ventilation and intubation are required [104]. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. HIV cure research in the time of COVID-19 - antiretroviral therapy treatment interruption trials: a discussion paper.. Severity of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Does Surfactant Matter?. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) universal screening in gravids during delivery. Felice Eugenio Agrò: Conceptualization; Data curation; Formal analysis (equal); Project administration (equal); Resources; Supervision; Validation. Key articles were retrieved mainly from PubMed, Google Scholar, MEDLINE, UpToDate, Embase and Web of Science, using the terms ‘COVID‐19’, ‘2019‐nCoV’, ‘coronavirus’ and ‘SARS‐CoV‐2’ as keywords for our search. Keywords: COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, … A Cross-Sectional Survey. In conclusion, although many therapies have been proposed, quarantine is the only intervention that appears to be effective in decreasing the contagion rate. The reported hyposmia and dysgeusia experienced by individuals with COVID‐19 could also indicate a potential neurotropism of this virus that may invade the olfactory nerve and bulb or, alternatively, the sensory fibres of the vagus nerve, which from the brainstem innervates different organs of the respiratory tract, including the larynx, trachea and lungs [34]. These opacities tended to flow together and thicken with progression of the disease. Vaping in today’s pandemic: E-cigarette, or vaping, product use–associated lung injury mimicking COVID-19 in teenagers presenting with respiratory distress. Proposed clinical indicators for efficient screening and testing for COVID-19 infection using Classification and Regression Trees (CART) analysis. Keywords: Virus‐induced inflammation pathway. Working off-campus? Can we contain the COVID‐19 outbreak with the same measures as for SARS? Chloroquine 500 mg BID orally (5–20 days according to clinical evolution) OR Hydroxychloroquine 200 mg BID orally (5–20 days according to clinical evolution). The inflammatory pathway involved in COVID‐19 is shown in Fig. Post COVID-19 monitoring involves a series of imaging investigations and blood tests on doctor’s recommendation, such as blood count or tests to assess liver and kidney function. Although severe lung injury has been described at all ages, in some high‐risk individuals, such as the elderly or those affected by multimorbidities, the virus is more likely to cause severe interstitial pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and subsequent multiorgan failure, which are responsible for severe acute respiratory failure and high death rates. 57.6: 99.5: 98.7: 77.7: Scohy (2020) Retrospective: 148 nasopharyngeal samples: Belgium: Nucleoprotein: IC Real-time PCR is used as a diagnostic tool using nasal swab, tracheal aspirate or bronchoalveolar lavage samples. Test negative for COVID-19, which means you were not infected at the time the sample was collected and analyzed.,, I have read and accept the Wiley Online Library Terms and Conditions of Use, First Case of 2019 Novel Coronavirus in the United States, First cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) in France: surveillance, investigations and control measures, January 2020, Overlapping and discrete aspects of the pathology and pathogenesis of the emerging human pathogenic coronaviruses SARS‐CoV, MERS‐CoV, and 2019‐nCoV, Covid‐19: WHO declares pandemic because of “alarming levels” of spread, severity, and inaction, Clinical feature of COVID‐19 in elderly patients: a comparison with young and middle‐aged patients, What we know so far: COVID‐19 current clinical knowledge and research, Epidemiology, causes, clinical manifestation and diagnosis, prevention and control of coronavirus disease (COVID‐19) during the early outbreak period: a scoping review, The incubation period of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) from publicly reported confirmed cases: estimation and application, Transmission of 2019‐nCoV Infection from an Asymptomatic Contact in Germany, A Familial cluster of infection associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating possible person‐to‐person transmission during the incubation period, Persistence of coronaviruses on inanimate surfaces and their inactivation with biocidal agents, Positive RT‐PCR test results in patients recovered from COVID‐19, Discontinuation of Home Isolation for Persons with COVID‐19 (Interim Guidance), Clinical presentation and virological assessment of hospitalized cases of coronavirus disease 2019 in a travel‐associated transmission cluster, Potential preanalytical and analytical vulnerabilities in the laboratory diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19), Outbreak of a new coronavirus: what anaesthetists should know, Clinical characteristics of 138 hospitalized patients with 2019 novel coronavirus–infected pneumonia in Wuhan, China, Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Geriatrics and Long‐term Care: The ABCDs of COVID‐19, Practical recommendations for critical care and anesthesiology teams caring for novel coronavirus (2019‐nCoV) patients, A model simulation study on effects of intervention measures in Wuhan COVID‐19 epidemic. Alessandro Strumia: Conceptualization (equal); Methodology (equal); Writing‐original draft (equal); Writing‐review & editing (equal). diagnosis. During the early stages of COVID-19 infection, chest x-rays may not be sensitive enough to detect these changes. One in five covid-19 patients are diagnosed with a mental illness within three months. 2020 Sep-Oct;41(5):102573. doi: 10.1016/j.amjoto.2020.102573. Caractéristiques cliniques et épidémiologiques de la Covid-19. Coronavirus pandemic: treatment and future prevention. Tocilizumab in the Management of COVID-19: A Preliminary Report. Sensitivity for subpleural lesions increases when a linear probe is used. Dendritic cells and macrophages act as first‐line antigen‐presenting cells which, following virus antigen recognition, produce cytokines, including interleukin (IL)‐12, IL‐15 and IL‐18. You can think of this like a single snapshot in time that doesn’t determine if you had COVID-19 previously or if you will be exposed and infected in the future. Hand hygiene is fundamental to prevent contamination. Currently, formal diagnosis of COVID-19 requires a laboratory test (RT-PCR) of nose and throat samples. This work is dedicated to every healthcare provider fighting this pandemic, and to our COVID‐19 patients, their families and loved ones. It is fundamental to ensure patient isolation in order to avoid transmission to other patients, family members and healthcare providers. In China, this outbreak showed a cumulative attack rate of 0–11% [7]. Excess neutrophils and persistently activated macrophages cause extensive damage to the lung epithelium and endothelium, resulting in an alveolar capillary barrier. Symptoms in Health Care Workers during the COVID-19 Epidemic. The development of respiratory failure without subjective perception of dyspnoea (‘silent hypoxaemia’) has also been reported [38]. International Journal of Infectious Diseases. Isabella Márcia Soares Nogueira Teotônio. An interesting strategy would be targeting the structural genes for the S protein or envelope or membrane proteins with small interfering RNAs [123]. lack of randomization and covariate‐adjusted analysis, and potential selection bias). For instance, laboratory methods focused on different types of samples and issues related to sample collection, such as which sample to collect and the right time to collect each sample in relation to the course of the disease, were addressed (Mathuria et al., 2020). Dendritic cells and macrophages act as first‐line antigen‐presenting cells which, following virus antigen recognition, produce cytokines, including interleukin (IL)‐12, IL‐15 and IL‐18. Review. A systematic review and meta‐analysis, Preparing for the most critically Ill patients with COVID‐ 19: the potential role of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, Cell therapy in acute respiratory distress syndrome, Reducing mortality from 2019‐nCoV: host‐directed therapies should be an option, Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of canakinumab, a human anti‐interleukin‐1beta monoclonal antibody, Roflumilast: a review of its use in the treatment of COPD, Harnessing the immune system via FcgammaR function in immune therapy: A pathway to next‐gen mAbs, Angiotensin‐converting enzyme 2 is a functional receptor for the SARS coronavirus, The secret life of ACE2 as a receptor for the SARS virus, Characterization of severe acute respiratory syndrome‐associated coronavirus (SARS‐CoV) spike glycoprotein‐mediated viral entry, Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus entry as a target of antiviral therapies, Angiotensin receptor blockers as tentative SARS‐CoV‐2 therapeutics, Emodin blocks the SARS coronavirus spike protein and angiotensin‐converting enzyme 2 interaction, Old drugs as lead compounds for a new disease? Effect of COVID-19 on platelet count and its indices. Quarantine measures must be taken to isolate infected individuals, both symptomatic and asymptomatic, and anyone who may have been in contact with them [71]. There is also no conclusive evidence regarding the use of steroids. BMJ 2020; 370:m2516. Online ahead of print. The purpose of this article was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis regarding the diagnostic test accuracy of chest CT for detecting coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Ground glass shadows (early stage). In addition to vaccines under development, passive immunization is an open opportunity since patients develop neutralizing antibodies. Containment of individual cases might prove impossible or ineffective in the long term; nevertheless, public health measures would definitely be effective in delaying the onset of widespread community transmission and reducing the peak incidence and impact on public services. Sources of information as a factor. Broad‐spectrum antiviral agents, such as dsRNA‐activated caspase oligomerizer, are known to cause selective apoptosis of virus‐containing host cells; this may be another promising strategy, but only if associated with other therapies as such antivirals cannot block the virus from entering the cell nor disrupt the viral nucleic acid. It becomes serious only in around 10% of cases, with dyspnoea, hypoxaemia and extensive (>50%) radiological involvement of the lung parenchyma. Here, we provide an overview of the known clinical features and treatment options for COVID-19. There is no evidence that antibiotic prophylaxis can prevent bacterial superinfection, and indeed no evidence of a diagnostic role of procalcitonin in COVID‐19 patients. Interstitial pneumonia characterized by interstitial syndrome with B lines and preserved sliding sign. Typical patterns of COVID‐19 at CT imaging. Deshmukh V, Tripathi SC, Pandey A, Deshmukh V, Vykoukal J, Patil A, Sontakke B. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. A mild thrombocytopenia, hypertransaminasaemia and an increase in lactate dehydrogenase have also been reported [47]. Comparative efficacy and safety of pharmacological interventions for the treatment of COVID-19: A systematic review and network meta-analysis Kim MS, An MH, Kim WJ, et al. See this image and copyright information in PMC. Risk factors for myocardial injury in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 in China. Most available data are from descriptive studies and shared experience. Biology of COVID-19 and related viruses: epidemiology, signs, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment. overview. Eurosurveillance 2020; 25: 2000094. This path should be evaluated in combination with thiopurine compounds, naphthalene inhibitors, protease inhibitors, zinc or mercury [123]. Infection, inflammation and other disease‐related factors can cause overactivation of coagulation, increasing the risk of augmented ischaemic events and disseminated intravascular coagulation [80]. 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