nikolaos ch komnenos

[34], Under the status quo, the Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholic, and Armenian Apostolic Churches all have rights to the interior of the tomb, and all three communities celebrate the Divine Liturgy or Holy Mass there daily. The wooden doors that compose the main entrance are the original, highly carved doors. [24], The current dome dates from 1870, although it was restored between 1994–1997, as part of extensive modern renovations to the church which have been ongoing since 1959. Nom en la llengua original (el) Ναός της Αναστάσεως Anomenat en referència a: Q3463426 : Dades; Tipus: basílica menor i basílica patriarcal: Arquitecte: Nikolaos Ch. There was a lock-in protest against an Israeli legislative proposal which would expropriate church lands that had been sold to private companies since 2010, a measure which church leaders assert constitutes a serious violation of their property rights and the Status Quo. The Church of the Holy Sepulchre (Greek: Ναός του Παναγίου Τάφου, [citation needed] Latin: Ecclesia Sancti Sepulchri, [citation needed] Hebrew: כנסיית הקבר ‎, [citation needed] Arabic: كنيسة القيامة ‎ [citation needed]) is a church in the Christian Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem. Contemporary sources credit the emperor with spending vast sums in an effort to restore the Church of the Holy Sepulchre after this agreement was made. All structured data from the file and property namespaces is available under the Creative Commons CC0 License; all unstructured text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. The source for this information is the following book: "Arcadia, a cultural history book" by George Papatheodorou, 1995, Deca Publications, Toronto, Ontario, Canada (Note: author claims "The names of the fighters are from the records of the "Committee Services" and other sources".) [34] A marble slab was placed over the limestone burial bed where Jesus's body is believed to have lain.[16]. Komnenos of Mytilene in the then current Ottoman Baroque style. They include the Heiliges Grab of Görlitz, constructed between 1481 and 1504,the New Jerusalem Monastery in Moscow Oblast, constructed by Patriarch Nikon between 1656 and 1666, and Mount St. Sepulchre Franciscan Monastery built by the Franciscans in Washington, DC in 1898. [b] The Status Quo, an understanding between religious communities dating to 1757, applies to the site.[4][5]. [21] Christian Europe reacted with shock and expulsions of Jews, serving as an impetus to later Crusades. 29–32. The Franciscan Chapel of the Blessed Sacrament or Chapel of the Apparition, directly north of the above – in memory of Jesus' meeting with his mother after the Resurrection, a non-scriptural tradition. Eutychius added that Umar wrote a decree prohibiting Muslims from praying at this location. "The Holy Sepulchre " and "Convent of the Holy Land at Nazareth". The rebuilt church site was taken from the Fatimids (who had recently taken it from the Abassids) by the knights of the First Crusade on 15 July 1099. [33], The wall behind the stone is defined by its striking blue balconies and tau cross-bearing red banners (depicting the insignia of the Brotherhood of the Holy Sepulchre), and is decorated with lamps. Login with Facebook Saudia New (Double, Single, Tanners')Al-Mawazin, Church in Jerusalem, Israel, containing the two holiest sites in Christianity, This article is about the church building in Jerusalem. Fields marked with an asterisk (*) are required. The Rotunda and the Aedicule's exterior were rebuilt in 1809–10 by architect Nikolaos Ch. Some people were arrested, but no one was seriously injured. Some people were arrested, but no one was seriously injured. DeKalb, IL: Northern Illinois University Press, 2016. ", Monastero di Santo Stefano: Basilica Santuario Santo Stefano: Storia, Homily of John Paul II in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. The exit is via another stairway opposite the first, leading down to the ambulatory. From pilgrim reports it seems that the chapel housing the tomb of Jesus was freestanding at first, and that the Rotunda was only erected around the chapel in the 380s. Contemporary sources credit the emperor with spending vast sums in an effort to restore the Church of the Holy Sepulchre after this agreement was made. Hadrian's temple had been located there because it was the junction of the main north–south road with one of the two main east–west roads and directly adjacent to the forum (now the location of the Muristan, which is smaller than the former forum). [35] In the Holy Week of 1757 there were important disturbances in the Temple[36][failed verification] and, weary of the squabbling, the "Porte" issued a firman that divided the church among the claimants. Nikolaos Ch. The new construction was concentrated on the rotunda and its surrounding buildings: the great basilica remained in ruins. This was interpreted as a hostile move by the Ethiopians, and eleven were hospitalized after the resulting fracas. Herod7. The remains are completely enveloped by a marble sheath placed some 500 years before to protect the ledge from Ottoman attacks. [citation needed] In other words, the city had been much narrower in Jesus' time, with the site then having been outside the walls; since Herod Agrippa (41–44) is recorded by history as extending the city to the north (beyond the present northern walls), the required repositioning of the western wall is traditionally attributed to him as well. They commemorated scenes from the passion, such as the location of the prison of Christ and his flagellation, and presumably were so placed because of the difficulties of free movement among shrines in the city streets. [90] The church holds the rights to land where private homes have been constructed, and some of the disagreement had been raised after the Knesset had proposed a bill that will make it harder for a private company not to extend a lease for land used by homeowners. Damascus 8. Anna Komnene: the Life and Work of a Me… The main denominations sharing property over parts of the church are the Greek Orthodox, Roman Catholic and Armenian Apostolic, and to a lesser degree the Coptic Orthodox, Syriac Orthodox and Ethiopian Orthodox. Floor plans in Adomnan's De locis sanctis to specify the description of pilgrimage sites in the Holy Land, "Jesus' Burial Tomb Uncovered: Here's What Scientists Saw Inside". According to the keeper of the keys, it was the first such closure since 1349, during the Black Death. [51][52] This is found past a group of streets winding through the outer Via Dolorosa by way of a local souq in the Muristan. [citation needed] The Greek Orthodox act through the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate as well as through the Brotherhood of the Holy Sepulchre. However, this tradition is only attested since the crusader era (notably by the Italian Dominican pilgrim Riccoldo da Monte di Croce in 1288), and the present stone was only added in the 1810 reconstruction. The temple and forum together took up the entire space between the two main east–west roads (a few above-ground remains of the east end of the temple precinct still survive in the Alexander Nevsky Church complex of the Russian Mission in Exile). For other uses, see, Two manuscript versions of the oldest known floor plans of the Holy Sepulchre, from, A mosaic depiction of Christ's body being prepared after his death, opposite the Stone of Anointing, The Stone of Anointing, where Jesus' body is said to have been anointed before burial, Syriac Chapel with Tomb of Joseph of Arimathea, Chapel of the Invention of the Holy Cross, The walled Old City area is contested by the, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFMorris2005 (. The Roman Catholics act through the Franciscan Custody of the Holy Land. The tomb of Philippe D'Aubigny (Philip Daubeny, d. 1236)—a knight, tutor, and royal councilor to, Chapel of Vardan Mamikonian – on the north side of the Chapel of Saint Helena is an ornate, Chapel of the Invention of the Holy Cross – another set of 22 stairs from the Chapel of Saint Helena leads down to the Roman Catholic, The Franciscan Chapel of St. Mary Magdalene – The chapel indicates the place where. Golden 5. The modern mosaic along the wall depicts the anointing of Jesus' body. The building suffered severe damage from an earthquake in 746. The new construction was concentrated on the rotunda and its surrounding buildings: the great basilica remained in ruins. This was interpreted as a hostile move by the Ethiopians and eleven were hospitalized after the resulting fracas. In 966, due to a defeat of Muslim armies in the region of Syria, a riot broke out, which was followed by reprisals. Much of the $4 million project was funded by the World Monuments Fund. A Search for Evidence", "Commemoration of the Founding of the Church of the Resurrection (Holy Sepulchre) at Jerusalem", The holy place as formula. [61], The wall was a temporary addition to support the arch above it, which had been weakened after the damage in the 1808 fire; it blocks the view of the rotunda, separates the entrance from the Catholicon, sits on top of the now empty and desecrated graves of four 12th-century crusader kings—including Godfrey of Bouillon and Baldwin I of Jerusalem—and is no longer structurally necessary. The Church of the Holy Sepulchre features prominently in the 2016 crypto-thriller. Dr Peter Frankopan is a Senior Research Fellow at Worcester College, Oxford. This was taken as a sign of disrespect by the Orthodox and a fistfight broke out. After seeing a vision of a cross in the sky in 312,[12] Constantine the Great converted to Christianity, signed the Edict of Milan legalising the religion, and sent his mother Helena to Jerusalem to look for Christ's tomb. [3][4] The first Christian emperor, Constantine the Great, ordered in about 325/326 that the temple be replaced by a church. [56] Today, the site of the Church is within the current walls of the old city of Jerusalem. According to tradition, Constantine arranged for the rockface to be removed from around the tomb, without harming it, in order to isolate the tomb; in the centre of the rotunda is a small building called the Kouvouklion in Greek[7] or the Aedicula in Latin,[lower-alpha 4] which encloses this tomb. [citation needed] In other words, the city had been much narrower in Jesus' time, with the site then having been outside the walls; since Herod Agrippa (41–44) is recorded by history as extending the city to the north (beyond the present northern walls), the required repositioning of the western wall is traditionally attributed to him as well. The fire did not reach the interior of the Aedicule, and the marble decoration of the Tomb dates mainly to the 1555 restoration, although the interior of the ante-chamber, now known as the "Chapel of the Angel," was partly rebuilt to a square ground-plan, in place of the previously semi-circular western end. [citation needed] The interior of the antechamber, now known as the Chapel of the Angel, was partly rebuilt to a square ground plan in place of the previously semicircular western end. 18 See Nicholas Mesarites’ account of the church in his logos on the failed palace revolt of John Komnenos the Fat in 1201: Heisenberg, A., Nikolaos Mesarites. Meanwhile, Protestants, including Anglicans, have no permanent presence in the Church. 55, 3., p. 261. There is a difference of opinion as to whether it is the 13th Station of the Cross, which others identify as the lowering of Jesus from the cross and locate between the 11th and 12th stations up on Calvary. They include the Heiliges Grab ("Holy Tomb") of Görlitz, constructed between 1481 and 1504, the New Jerusalem Monastery in Moscow Oblast, constructed by Patriarch Nikon between 1656 and 1666, and Mount St. Sepulchre Franciscan Monastery built by the Franciscans in Washington, DC in 1898. [30], In 1545, the upper level of the church's bell tower collapsed. The first who 21 M. Mullett, ‘Dreaming in the Life of Cyril Phileothes’, in Dreaming in Byzantium and Beyond, Farnham 2014, 1–21. The idea of taking Jerusalem gained more focus as the Crusade was underway. She is best known as the author of The Alexiad - written between 1143-53, it is the first major history written by a woman. A group of Christian leaders has closed the famous Church of the Holy Sepulchre in protest of Israeli taxation and land policy. This narrow way of access to such a large structure has proven to be hazardous at times. Hebrew. Manuel I Komnenos 231, 233–235, 237, 243–244, 300 compared to Alexander 285–286 hires Latins 294 and Justinian 103 pursuits 247–248 settles barbarians 91. South of the Aedicule is the "Place of the Three Marys",[71] marked by a stone canopy and a large modern wall mosaic. [3] After the temple was torn down and its ruins removed, the soil was removed from the cave, revealing a rock-cut tomb that Helena and Macarius identified as the burial site of Jesus,[2][13][14][15] around which a shrine was constructed. On a hot summer day in 2002, a Coptic monk moved his chair from its agreed spot into the shade. Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos The Arabian peninsula constitutes what modern-day countries? [citation needed], Gates1. The church became the seat of the first Latin Patriarchs, and was also the site of the kingdom's scriptorium. [58] One example is Santo Stefano in Bologna, Italy, an agglomeration of seven churches recreating shrines of Jerusalem. In addition, the Byzantines, while releasing 5,000 Muslim prisoners, made demands for the restoration of other churches destroyed by Al-Hakim and the reestablishment of a patriarch in Jerusalem. The main denominations sharing property over parts of the church are the Greek Orthodox, Armenian Orthodox and Roman Catholic, and to a lesser degree the Egyptian Copts, Syriacs and Ethiopians. מנואל הראשון, קיסר האימפריה הביזנטית. The damage was repaired in 810 by Patriarch Thomas I. The Franciscans rebuilt the Aedicule, extending the structure to create an ante-chamber. Although this space was discovered recently,[when?] [39], East of this is a large iconostasis demarcating the Orthodox sanctuary before which is set the throne of the Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem on the south side facing the throne of the Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch on the north side. The crusaders began to refurnish the church in a Romanesque style and added a bell tower. Possibly due to the fact that pilgrims laid their hands on the tomb or to prevent eager pilgrims from removing bits of the original rock as souvenirs, a marble plaque was placed in the fourteenth century on the tomb to prevent further damage to the tomb. These entrances are located in the parvis of a larger courtyard, or plaza. ): Griechenland auf dem Weg zur Europäischen Wirtschafts-und Währungsunion. I. Manuél bizánci császár 1a and b).5 On the obverse, an image of Christ reminds the viewer of the Christomimetic (Christ-like) nature of the emperor’s author- The Rotunda and the Aedicule's exterior were rebuilt in 1809–1810 by architect Nikolaos Ch. [83], On Palm Sunday, in April 2008, a brawl broke out when a Greek monk was ejected from the building by a rival faction. Jaffa 2. Within the church proper are the last four (or, by some definitions, five) Stations of the Via Dolorosa, representing the final episodes of Jesus' Passion. The Syriac Orthodox Chapel of Saint Joseph of Arimathea and Saint Nicodemus. church of the The Church of the Holy Sepulchre[c](Latin: Ecclesia Sancti Sepulchri);[d] is also called the Church of the Resurrection or Church of the Anastasis by Eastern Christians(‎ Kanīsatu al-Qiyāmah; Greek: Ναὸς τῆς Ἀναστάσεως Naos tes Anastaseos; Armenian: … In earnstige brân yn 1808 makke yn de jierren 1809-1810 in weropbou fan de koepel fan de Rotunda en de Aedicule needsaaklik. In the 13th century, the tops of the columns were removed and sent to Mecca by the Khwarezmids. [21], The wall behind the stone is defined by its striking blue balconies and tau cross-bearing red banners (depicting the insignia of the Brotherhood of the Holy Sepulchre), and is decorated with lamps. Western pilgrims to Jerusalem during the eleventh century found much of the sacred site in ruins. Manuel I Komnenos 231, 233–235, 237, 243–244, 300 compared to Alexander 285–286 hires Latins 294 and Justinian 103 pursuits 247–248 settles barbarians 91. One of the two chapels within the shrine, a pilaster incorporates a piece of the stone said to have been rolled away from the tomb; it functions as a Greek Orthodox altar. The church is a part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site Old City of Jerusalem. [6], Constantine's church was built as two connected churches over the two different holy sites, including a great basilica (the Martyrium visited by Egeria in the 380s), an enclosed colonnaded atrium (the Triportico) with the traditional site of Golgotha in one corner, and a rotunda, called the Anastasis ("Resurrection" in Greek), which contained the remains of a rock-cut room that Helena and Macarius identified as the burial site of Jesus. By the Crusader period, a cistern under the former basilica was rumoured to have been where Helena had found the True Cross, and began to be venerated as such; the cistern later became the "Chapel of the Invention of the Cross", but there is no evidence of the site's identification before the 11th century, and modern archaeological investigation has now dated the cistern to 11th-century repairs by Monomachos. [14] Muslim sources say a by-product of the agreement was the recanting of Islam by many Christians who had been forced to convert under Al-Hakim's persecutions. Komnenos of Mytilene in the then current Ottoman Baroque style. Google Scholar The doors and roof were burnt, and the Patriarch John VII was murdered. [39], By the time of the British Mandate, the cladding of red marble applied to the Aedicule by Komnenos had deteriorated badly and was detaching from the underlying structure; from 1947 until restoration work in 2016–17, it was held in place with an exterior scaffolding of iron girders installed by the British authorities. Police were called to the scene but were also attacked by the enraged brawlers. On the far side of the chapel is the low entrance to an almost complete 1st-century Jewish tomb, initially holding six kokh-type funeral shafts radiating from a central chamber, two of which are still exposed. [5] During the building of the Church, Constantine's mother, Helena, is believed to have rediscovered the tomb (although there are some discrepancies among authors). Marcus Aurelius 65, 270 Julian compared to 145, 153 See the comment by A. hEisEnBERg, Nikolaos Mesarites, Die Palastrevolution des Johannes Komnenos, Würzburg 1907, 58. Some Protestants prefer The Garden Tomb, elsewhere in Jerusalem, as a more evocative site to commemorate Jesus' crucifixion and resurrection. Houses the site where Jesus was crucified as well as the tomb he was buried in. [25] To the east of the Chapel of Saint Helena, the excavators discovered a void containing a 2nd-century drawing of a Roman ship, two low walls which supported the platform of Hadrian's 2nd-century temple, and a higher 4th-century wall built to support Constantine's basilica. Historians agree that the fate of Jerusalem and thereby the Church of the Holy Sepulchre was also of concern, if not the immediate goal of papal policy in 1095. Every year, the Eastern Orthodox Church celebrates the anniversary of the Dedication of the Temple of the Resurrection of Christ [ru]. The Franciscan Chapel of the Blessed Sacrament (or Chapel of the Apparition) – in memory of Jesus' meeting with his mother after the Resurrection. It is accessed from the Rotunda, by a door west of the Aedicule.[72]. The classical theory is that Crusader prince Godfrey of Bouillon, who became the first Crusader monarch of Jerusalem, decided not to use the title "king" during his lifetime, and declared himself "Advocatus Sancti Sepulchri" ("Protector [or Defender] of the Holy Sepulchre"). Just inside the church entrance is a stairway leading up to Calvary (Golgotha), traditionally regarded as the site of Jesus' crucifixion[57] and the most lavishly decorated part of the church. 189–206. During the 1970–1978 restoration works and excavations inside the building, and under the nearby Muristan, it was found that the area was originally a quarry, from which white meleke limestone was struck. [24] Muslim sources say a by-product of the agreement was the renunciation of Islam by many Christians who had been forced to convert under Al-Hakim's persecutions. Manglabites, Nikolaos, 366. Nikolaos Zagklas (University of Vienna), “Isaak Komnenos and Theodore Prodromos: Forging Intellectual and Patronage Ties in Twelfth-Century Constantinople” Respondent: Divna Manolova (University of York) Marina Loukaki (University of Athens), “Notes on the construction of Isaakios Komnenos' profile by Theodoros Prodromos” Hlepas, Nikolaos-Komnenos, Wandel der griechischen Verwaltung und europäische Integration. [50] The Joudeh Al-Goudia family were entrusted as custodian to the keys of the Holy Sepulchre by Saladin in 1187. [21][26] After the excavations of the early 1970s, the Armenian authorities converted this archaeological space into the Chapel of Saint Vartan, and created an artificial walkway over the quarry on the north of the chapel, so that the new Chapel could be accessed (by permission) from the Chapel of Saint Helena. The present day church now has a maximum capacity of 8,000 people and is shared by branches of Eastern Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodoxy, and Roman Catholicism, as well as some non-religious groups (under complicated arrangements.) The Crusaders began to refurnish the church in Romanesque style and added a bell tower. The Aedicule has two rooms, the first holding the Angel's Stone, which is believed to be a fragment of the large stone that sealed the tomb; the second is the tomb of Jesus. The Rotunda and the Edicule's exterior were rebuilt in 1809-1810 by architect Nikolaos Ch. On the left (north) side, the Greek Orthodox chapel's altar is placed over the rock of Calvary (the 12th Station of the Cross), which can be touched through a hole in the floor beneath the altar. This suggested that the tomb location has not changed through time and confirmed the existence of the original limestone cave walls within the Aedicule. Manuel Komnenos was the fourth son of John II Komnenos and Piroska of Hungary, so it seemed very unlikely that he would succeed his father. [16] In 327, Constantine and Helena separately commissioned the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem to commemorate the birth of Jesus. [98] One example is Santo Stefano in Bologna, Italy, an agglomeration of seven churches recreating shrines of Jerusalem. The basilica was burned again. Historians agree that the fate of Jerusalem and thereby the Church of the Holy Sepulchre was of concern if not the immediate goal of papal policy in 1095. [citation needed], The wall was a temporary addition to support the arch above it, which had been weakened after the damage in the 1808 fire; it blocks the view of the rotunda, separates the entrance from the Catholicon, sits on top of the now-empty and desecrated graves of four 12th-century crusader kings—including Godfrey of Bouillon and Baldwin I of Jerusalem—and is no longer structurally necessary. [54], The Bible describes Jesus's tomb as being outside the city wall,[55] as was normal for burials across the ancient world, which were regarded as unclean. There was no agreement about this question, although it was discussed at the negotiations to the Treaty of Karlowitz in 1699. [citation needed] The interior of the antechamber, now known as the Chapel of the Angel,[f] was partly rebuilt to a square ground plan in place of the previously semicircular western end. The idea of taking Jerusalem gained more focus as the Crusade was underway. The Rotunda and the Aedicule's exterior were rebuilt in 1809–10 by architect Nikolaos Ch. Further along the same wall is the entrance to the Chapel of Adam. [26], In 2016, restoration works were performed in the Aedicule. Possibly due to the fact that pilgrims laid their hands on the tomb and/or to prevent eager pilgrims from removing bits of the original rock as souvenirs, a marble plaque was placed in the fourteenth century on the tomb to prevent further damage to the tomb. The establishment of the modern Status Quo in 1853 did not halt controversy and occasional violence. The Rotunda and the Edicule's exterior were rebuilt in 1809–1810 by architect Nikolaos Ch. Within the church proper are the last four (or, by some definitions, five) stations of the Via Dolorosa, representing the final episodes of the Passion of Jesus. Located around the parvis are a few smaller structures. A story reports that the Caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab visited the church and stopped to pray on the balcony; but at the time of prayer, he turned away from the church and prayed outside. 29–32. [citation needed], On the far side of the chapel is the low entrance to two complete 1st-century Jewish tombs. An example of concord between the Church custodians is the recent (2016–17) full restoration of the Aedicule. Marathon, battle, 19. [citation needed], The Rotunda is located in the centre of the Anastasis, beneath the larger of the church's two domes. They have been described as 'a sort of Via Dolorosa in miniature'... since little or no rebuilding took place on the site of the great basilica. [11], According to the German clergyman and Orient pilgrim Ludolf von Sudheim, the keys of the Chapel of the Holy Sepulchre were in hands of the "ancient Georgians" and the food, alms, candles and oil for lamps were given to them by the pilgrims at the south door of the church. [62] To its rear, in a chapel constructed of iron latticework, lies the altar used by the Coptic Orthodox. Emperor Frederick II (r. 1220–50) regained the city and the church by treaty in the 13th century while he himself was under a ban of excommunication, with the curious consequence that the holiest church in Christianity was laid under interdict. The church was lost to Saladin,[19] along with the rest of the city, in 1187, although the treaty established after the Third Crusade allowed for Christian pilgrims to visit the site. "[21] Control of Jerusalem, and thereby the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, continued to change hands several times between the Fatimids and the Seljuk Turks (loyal to the Abbasid caliph in Baghdad) until the Crusaders' arrival in 1099. The interior of the antechamber, now known as the Chapel of the Angel, was partly rebuilt to a square ground plan in place of the previously semicircular western end. The city hall stressed that the Church of the Holy Sepulchre and all other churches are exempt from the taxes, with the changes only affecting establishments like "hotels, halls and businesses" owned by the churches. [17], Many historians maintain that the main concern of Pope Urban II, when calling for the First Crusade, was the threat to Constantinople from the Turkish invasion of Asia Minor in response to the appeal of Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenos. In 935, the Christians prevented the construction of a Muslim mosque adjacent to the Church. An example of concord between the Church custodians is the full restoration of the Aedicule from 2016 to 2017. 5 The Campaigns of Manuel I Komnenos (1143-80) 100 Ch. There is a tradition that Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus were buried here. 1231–47, during the Latin control of Jerusalem. To the right of the entrance is a wall along the ambulatory containing the staircase leading to Golgotha. By the night of October 28, the original limestone burial bed was revealed intact. Komnenos of Mytilene. A PATRIMONY. [1] The church contains, according to traditions dating back to at least the fourth century, the two holiest sites in Christianity: the site where Jesus was crucified,[2] at a place known as Calvary or Golgotha, and Jesus's empty tomb, where he was buried and resurrected. The crusaders investigated the eastern ruins on the site, occasionally excavating through the rubble, and while attempting to reach the cistern, they discovered part of the original ground level of Hadrian's temple enclosure; they decided to transform this space into a chapel dedicated to Helena (the Chapel of Saint Helena), widening their original excavation tunnel into a proper staircase. The Komnenos family of emperors succeeded in 1057 after Isaakios Komnenos defeated the imperial army of Emperor Mikhael VI Stratiotikos, the unpopular successor appointed by Empress Theodora. 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